【国际参考】美国众议院通过维吾尔人权法案 House Passes Uighur Human Rights Bill

— 【华盛顿】,2020年5月27日,纽约时报

Prodding Trump to Punish China

在人们的目光集中在中国的“香港法案”,和“孟晚舟审判书”(点击这里看有关信息)时,另外一件【重大法案】在华盛顿几乎以“全票”(只有一票反对)通过:
众议院议长佩洛西说:“如果美国人因为某种商业利益而不对中国侵犯人权的行为发声,那么我们就失去了对世界上任何地方侵犯人权行为发声的道德权威。”
这项法案获得跨党派的支持。
该法案要求美国政府确定哪些中国官员对维吾尔族和其他少数民族的 “任意拘留、施行酷刑和骚扰 ”负有责任。
确认后,美国将冻结这些官员在美国这个世界上最大的经济体中持有的任何资产,并禁止他们入境。

下面 英文版 纽约时报 对此报道 (Click on) Here is English version

美国众议院通过维吾尔人权法案

新疆人权法案在美众议院仅有一人反对下高票通过。在美中因香港议题关系紧张之际,这个法案让两国裂痕加大。

国众议院周三以压倒性票数通过《维吾尔人权政策法案》,将其递交至特朗普办公室。这项法案寻求对涉及新疆拘禁营的中国高级官员进行惩罚,将迫使特朗普对中国侵犯人权的行为采取更强硬的立场。

该法案在众议院得到了两党的支持,以 413 票对 1 票获得通过。法案将迫使特朗普对新疆的中共最高官员陈全国实施制裁,并授权情报部门出具一份参与建设、运营拘禁营的中国公司名单。

美国新疆人权法案特别提到了中共在新疆的领导人陈全国。此前他曾在西藏任职。

该法案的通过反映了国会对北京针对维吾尔穆斯林进行残酷运动予以惩罚的广泛支持。参议院在本月早些时候全票通过了这项由佛罗里达州共和党参议员马尔科·卢比奥 (Marco Rubio) 发起的法案。

“通过这项压倒性的两党立法,美国国会正在迈出坚定的一步,以反击北京对维吾尔人可怕的人权侵犯行为,”众议院议长南希·佩洛西 (Nancy Pelosi) 说。“我们必须继续敲响鼓声,不管是在众议院,还是国务院或其他多边机构,只要我们能做到的,就必须继续敲响鼓声,曝光北京对维吾尔人的侵犯行为。”

肯塔基州共和党众议员托马斯·马西 (Thomas Massie) 是唯一反对该法案的议员。

国会两党在持续一年的不懈努力之下最终促使该法案通过,其中的对华鹰派人士尤其出力颇多,他们对特朗普政府不愿意惩罚中国侵犯人权的行为感到沮丧。

白宫和财政部此前曾搁置对中国官员实施制裁,因为担心此举会危及贸易协议的达成。但去年商务部将海康威视等八家中国公司列入黑名单,这些公司的产品被用于监控穆斯林。

在新冠病毒大流行期间,中美之间的紧张关系不断升温。特朗普的竞选助手最近几周在全党范围内采取了攻击北京的策略,希望借此转移民众对政府处理此次公共卫生危机的不满。

中国一直强烈否认关于新疆拘禁营的报道,并将这些地方描述为职业技能培训设施。但已有大量证据(包括中国政府的内部文件)证明,这是这个国家自毛时代以来最大规模的拘禁行动。

根据联合国报告,中国在新疆至少关押了一百万维吾尔穆斯林。

去年,美国国会曾一致通过香港人权与民主法案,并迫使特朗普签署了该法案。总统对两院通过的法案拥有否决权,但国会可以在获得三分之二多数投票时推翻总统的否决。

当前美国国会对人权的关注并不止于中国。该机构曾不顾政府反对通过多项法案,包括承认奥斯曼土耳其人1915年对约 150万亚美尼亚人的杀戮是种族灭绝行为,以及对在叙利亚内战中侵犯人权的官员实施制裁。

House Passes Uighur Human Rights Bill, Prodding Trump to Punish China

The House overwhelmingly cleared legislation that would punish top Chinese officials for detaining more than one million Muslims in internment camps.

The House voted overwhelmingly on Wednesday to pass a measure that would punish top Chinese officials for detaining more than one million Muslims in internment camps, sending President Trump a bill intended to force him to take a more aggressive stand on human rights abuses in China.

The bipartisan vote, 413 to 1, cleared legislation that would compel Mr. Trump to impose sanctions on Chen Quanguo, the top Communist Party official in Xinjiang, where the camps are, and mandate that the director of national intelligence produce a list of Chinese companies involved in the construction and operation of the camps.

Uighur men at a mosque in China’s Xinjiang region last year.

The bill’s passage reflected broad congressional support to punish Beijing for its ruthless campaign against Uighurs, Muslim ethnic minorities, and to press the administration into action to condemn China’s mass detentions. The Senate passed the legislation, which was sponsored by Senator Marco Rubio, Republican of Florida, earlier this month.

“With this overwhelming bipartisan legislation, the United States Congress is taking a firm step to counter Beijing’s horrific human rights abuses against the Uighurs,” Speaker Nancy Pelosi said. “We must continue to raise a drumbeat and shine the light of abuse perpetrated by Beijing against the Uighurs whenever we can, from this House floor to the State Department to other multilateral institutions.”
Representative Thomas Massie, Republican of Kentucky, was the sole lawmaker to oppose the bill.

The drive to pass the legislation has been a yearlong effort by lawmakers on both sides of the aisle, especially China hawks, who have grown frustrated at the administration’s reluctance to punish human rights abuses by Beijing despite damning reports outlining a brutal indoctrination campaign against Uighurs.

The White House and the Treasury Department had previously refrained from imposing sanctions on Chinese officials responsible for the camps for fear of jeopardizing the chances of reaching a trade deal, though last year the Commerce Department blacklisted eight Chinese companies whose products have been used to surveil Uighurs.

Tensions have since risen with China during the coronavirus pandemic, and Mr. Trump’s campaign aides in recent weeks have taken up a partywide strategy of attacking Beijing, in part to divert from the administration’s own handling of the health crisis.

China has vehemently denied reports of abuses in Xinjiang, and has described the camps as corrective facilities aimed at training workers. But overwhelming evidence, including official documents, news reports and testimony from released detainees, shows the country’s most sweeping internment program since the Mao era.

On the House floor on Wednesday, Representative Christopher H. Smith, Republican of New Jersey and one of the sponsors of the bill, recounted one such story that he heard from a released detainee who came before the House to detail her experience in one of the camps.

“She broke down weeping, telling us that she pleaded with God for her life, and her Chinese jailers restrained her to a table, increased the electrical currents coursing through her body and mocked her belief in God,” Mr. Smith said.

“We cannot be silent,” he continued. “Xi Jinping is smashing and obliterating an entire people.”

Last year, Congress unanimously passed legislation supporting the Hong Kong protests, forcing Mr. Trump to sign the bill. Mr. Trump, who had previously said he was “standing with” Mr. Xi, the Chinese leader, risked being overruled by Congress and criticized as weak on China if he had vetoed the measure. But when he signed the bill, he issued a statement saying he would “exercise executive discretion” in enforcing its provisions.

The focus on human rights in Congress has extended beyond China, with some Republicans breaking from Mr. Trump to support other human rights causes. Last year, over the administration’s objections, lawmakers passed legislation recognizing as a genocide the 1915 killings of an estimated 1.5 million Armenians, and another bill, included in the annual defense policy bill, that imposed sanctions on Syrian officials responsible for human rights violations during the nation’s civil war.

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